Jharkhand is popularly known as Vananchal meaning land of woods. Talking about Jharkhand state, it was carved out from the state of Bihar on November 15, 2000. The date is important as it also marks the birth anniversary of the legendary Bhagwan Birsa Munda supreme leader of the revolt against British rule in the year 1900. The state capital is Ranchi, which is also the industrial city of the state. Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Orissa to the south, and West Bengal to the east. If we take a look at the history of Jharkhand according to some of the historians, even before the period of Magadha Empire the state of Jharkand existed and was distinct in its geo-political, cultural entity. Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa was accepted as the ruler of Jharkhand by its people in the 13th century. The local tribal heads had developed into barbaric dictators who could govern the province neither fairly nor justly. Consequently the people of this state approached the more powerful rulers of Jharkhand's neighboring states who were perceived to have a more fair and just governance. This became the turning point in the history of the region wherein rulers from Orissa moved in with their armies and created states that were governed for the benefit of the people and involved their participation, thus ending the barbarism that had marked the region for centuries. The good tribal rulers continued to thrive and were known as the Munda Rajas, and exist even today. These are regions which are still semi- autonomous, the degree of autonomy depending on the size of each specific Munda Raja's domain. During the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara. After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand" or the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty like Lodh Falls. The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before India’s first War of Independence (1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule. The demand for a separate Jharkhand state can be traced back to the early 1900s, when Jaipal Singh, an Indian Hockey captain and Olympian, suggested the idea of a separate state consisting of the southern districts of Bihar. The idea did not become a reality, however, until August 2, 2000, when the Parliament of India passed the Bihar Reorganization Bill to create the state of Jharkhand, carving 18 districts out of Bihar to form Jharkhand state on 15 November 2000. It became the 28th state of India.
The Government of Jharkhand also known as State Government is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Jharkhand and its 24 districts. It consists of an executive, led by the Governor of Jharkhand a judiciary and a legislative branch. The state covers a geographical area of 79.70 Lakh Hector. Many parts of the Jharkhand state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Chota Nagpur plateau is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support the population of tigers and Asian Elephants. The requirements of fruits, vegetables, and flowers, medicinal and aromatic plants are met by the local production of the state and these items are even exported to the deficient areas. Favorable agro-climatic conditions allow round-the-year production of different varieties & "off-season" vegetable (such as brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower, ladies-finger, onion, peas, potato, pumpkin, mushroom, capsicum and green chilly) and fruits (such as mango, leechi, guava, banana, papaya, lemon, hack fruit, amla and others). The state is blessed with vast resources for establishing food processing units including those of fruit and vegetable preservation, milk and meat preservation and for processing of minor forest produce. There is a scope for bringing additional area under cultivation through vertical and horizontal expansions, increasing area under irrigation, increasing production and productivity of food crops through optimum utilization of inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural tools and implements, etc.
The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital. The other major cities, all highly industrialized cities of eastern India, are Jamshedpur, Bokaro, and Dhanbad. Jharkhand is known for its mineral wealth and forestry products together with excellent human resources. Jharkhand has a population of 26.90 million. The population consists of 28% tribals, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. There are 274 persons for each square kilometer of land. Jharkhand has remained a home to a number of tribal communities since time immemorial. Some of the districts have a predominant tribal population. Jharkhand has 32 primitive tribal groups. These are Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar. The geographical area now comprising Jharkhand was previously part of Bihar. The area has witnessed migration of people from the adjoining areas of Bihar and West Bengal for last several decades. Industrial and mining centers like Jamshedpur, Dhanbad and Ranchi have attracted people from all parts of India. Hinduism, Islam and Christianity are the three religions that came in through the colonizers. The state of Jharkhand is home to a number of tribal communities since the ancient times. No wonder, the art and culture of Jharkhand reflects a vivid and colorful tribal tapestry. Jharkhand has about 30 tribes out of which 9 are primitive, maintaining their own, unique cultural identity till this day in undiluted forms. The tribal’s have their unique dance, music, and art and craft forms which doesn't fail to enchant the tourists. The masks, bamboo crafts, wood work, and folk paintings of Jharkhand are other expressions of this state's perennial culture, which have their roots in the tribal mosaic. The cultural affairs sector of the state organizes programs related to the Culture of Jharkhand, which includes different dances, music, drama, kavi sammelans, paintings, and other related activities. The Tribal communities of Jharkhand have their own spiritual beliefs commonly called Sarna. During the process of colonization the tribal religious beliefs were considered pagan and this was a tool for further subordination. Today the tribal people are realizing this and now Sarna is a growing phenomenon. Over the centuries, the tribal groups of the state have developed a rich tradition of arts and crafts. Folk music and dance forms of Jharkhand is popular all over the country. People of Jharkhand perform traditional dances and music on various occasions. Amongst the art forms, paintings of Jharkhand are very famous. Santhali Bhittichitra, Oraon Bhittichitra and Jado Patiya are some noted painting of Jharkhand. On the whole Jharkhand is an enchanting destination which deserves a visit. On your Jharkhand trip, you will come across some never before seen sights and also get a wonderful chance to experience a distinct culture. Jharkhand Tourism is honored with deep insight into tribal life regarding exotic tribal dance, music, art and craft forms. Jharkhand vacation can be enjoyed with options of dense forests, distinct wildlife and visits to well known industrial cities like capital Ranchi Jamshedpur, Bokaro, and Dhanbad at the destination. It is advisable to take a Holiday package of this destination from the tour operators to explore the colorful tribal life of the state.